Chapter 7 employs a novel approach to model the level of pedagogy, or teaching and learning, present in two different point reduction sequences.
This manuscript demonstrates that pedagogy can be gleaned from stone artefact assemblages, and shows that Kimberley Points represent a shift towards a greater emphasis on a formal pedagogy within the last millennium of Kimberley prehistory.
This research also shows that the people using the Ngaut Ngaut rockshelter preferred making bone tools out of fibulae, which was proven to be the case over a long period of time.
Grinding has been revealed to be the most common form of bone modification.
Taking into account the above considerations it is suggested that the use of bone tools at Ngaut Ngaut possibly fluctuates over time.
It is also apparent that people using the rockshelter had and maintained preferences in relation to the animals and animal parts used to make bone tools.These ideologies maintained and reproduced the social structure, as adhering to the ideals of respectability was the key for individuals to gain and maintain their social status. I can conclude that macropods were the primary animal used.Of note this research has also reclassified species and added new information in this regard.Chapter 5 presents analyses of multiple surface assemblages across the Kimberley, where backing technology is shown to be a regular component of point technologies.The presence of the Kimberley Backed Point challenges the existing model of spatial distributions of backing in Australia.Physical monuments from West Terrace Cemetery, and other, written, forms of commemoration, such as death notices, In Memoriams and obituaries, were analysed to understand the individual, personal, response to death, and the broader social structures and ideologies which structured, and were embodied in, individual practices, ideas and emotions.Through this understanding, it is argued that commemorative practices and the cemetery in the nineteenth century played an active role in maintaining and legitimating the dominance of the middle class, as well as reflecting growing class consciousness and conflict as different classes asserted their own views, tastes and practices. Department of Archaeology, Flinders University Adelaide, South Australia BArch(Hons) submitted November 2013 [email protected] thesis has utilised a technological and functional approach to assess the bone tools at Ngaut Ngaut.This changed in the twentieth century however as the growing privatisation of grief and disassociation of class identities that followed the First World War and Great Depression caused commemorative practices to become increasingly uniform, denying the existence of class. Changes over time in relation to these issues have also been addressed.The dominance of the middle class was then masked through ideologies of individualism, gentility and respectability that identified the right characteristics that were the key to success and social status, denying class and the barriers and social determinants of success. Taking into account preservation issues and results from neighbouring sites it can be suggested that bone tools were not used as regularly in more recent times. This research has also for the first time presented results on the species used to make bone tools in a detailed and thorough manner.Based on this analysis, contributions are made to the ongoing consideration of two major models concerning the past human use of Australia’s arid zone during climatic changes: ‘refuges, barriers and corridors’ (Veth 1989) and ‘desert transformation’ (Hiscock and Wallis 2005).Results demonstrate that little technological change occurred during the human occupation of Allen’s Cave, corroborating a conclusion shared by previous analysts Ljubomir Marun (1972) and Scott Cane (1995).