There are generally three kinds of vents that occur and are all characterized by its temperature and chemical composition.
Diffuse vents release clear water typically up to 30 °C.
The organisms utilize the minerals and chemicals that come out of the vents.
Extreme conditions in the hydrothermal vent environment means that microbial communities that inhabit these areas need to adapt to them.
Microbes that live here are known to be hyperthermophiles which by definition are microorganisms that grow at temperatures above 90 °C.
These organisms are found where the fluids from the vents are expelled and mixed with the surrounding water.White smoker vents emit a milky coloured water that are approximately 200-330 °C, black smoker vents generally release water hotter than the others between 300-400 °C.The waters from black smokers are darkened by the precipitates of sulfide that are accumulated.It was first discovered in 1890 by Sergei Nikolaevich Vinogradskii as a result of his physiological research in that period.The existence of chemosynthesis was confirmed about 90 years later with the discovery of deep sea hydrothermal vents.These hyperthermophilic microbes are thought to contain proteins that have extended stability at higher temperatures due to intramolecular interactions but the exact mechanisms are not clear yet.The stabilization mechanisms for DNA are not as unknown and the denaturation of DNA are thought to be minimized through high salt concentrations, more specifically Mg, K, and PO4 which are highly concentrated in hyperthermophiles.This allows water from the ocean to enter into the crust of the earth where it is heated by the magma.The increasing pressure and temperature forces the water back out of these openings, on the way out, the water accumulates dissolved minerals and chemicals from the rocks that it encounters.These organisms also provide the foundation for further development of the ecosystem as they are hunted by larger creatures.The Hydrothermal vent microbial community encompasses all unicellular organisms that live and reproduce in a chemically distinct area around Hydrothermal vents.