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Earlier in the 1960s, before Détente, the Partial Test Ban Treaty had been signed in 1963.The Treaty Banning Nuclear Weapon Tests In The Atmosphere, In Outer Space And Under Water, often abbreviated as the Partial Test Ban Treaty (PTBT), Limited Test Ban Treaty (LTBT), or Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (NTBT) (although the latter also refers to the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty) is a treaty prohibiting all test detonations of nuclear weapons except underground.
SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at the then existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
The strategic nuclear forces niche of the Soviet Union and the United States were changing in character in 1968. S.'s total number of missiles had been static since 1967 at 1054 ICBMs and 656 SLBMs, but an increasing number of missiles with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) warheads had been deployed.
In the Soviet bloc, Romania took the lead in departing from Soviet policy. All these factors combined to loosen the rigid pattern of international relationships and resulted in a period of detente. From 1989 to 1991 the cold war came to an end with the opening of the Berlin Wall , the collapse of Communist party dictatorship in Eastern Europe, the reunification of Germany, and the disintegration of the Soviet Union.
In the 21st cent., however, the revival, under Valdimir Putin , of Russia's military power and great power ambitions led to new geopolitical tensions and conflicts between Russia and the West, and the economic and military modernization of China (which remained ruled by the Communist party) also resulted in tensions and conflicts, especially with respect to Chinese claims in the South China Sea.
It was developed both to slow the arms race (nuclear testing is necessary for continued nuclear weapon advancements), and to stop the excessive release of nuclear fallout into the planet's atmosphere. Later in the decade, the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and Outer Space Treaty were two of the first building blocks of Détente.
It was signed by the Governments of the USSR (represented by Andrei Gromyko), the UK (represented by Douglas Home) and the USA (represented by Dean Rusk), named the "Original Parties," at Moscow on August 5, 1963 and opened for signature by other countries. However, these early treaties did little to curb the superpowers' abilities, and served primarily to limit the nuclear ambitions of third parties that could endanger both superpowers.Several bi- and multi-lateral agreements punctuated the period of détente.Among them, the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) of 1972 and the 35-nation Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe leading to the so-called Helsinki Accords (1975) generally are regarded as the most significant.But the election of Jimmy Carter as president in 1976 and the increasing incoherence of Soviet foreign policy owing to Brezhnev’s incapacitation and widening divisions in the Soviet bureaucracy slowed down and eventually reversed the momentum.By the time of the Soviet military intervention in Afghanistan to prop up a client regime against US-backed rebels and the subsequent US-led boycott of the 1980 Moscow Olympics, détente was over.This ultimately led to the signing of the SALT I treaty in 1972.SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement, but also known as Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty.The leadership feared the potential of a Sino-American alliance against them and believed it necessary to improve relations with the United States.Improved relations with China had already thawed the general American view of Communism.The American economy was also in financial trouble as the Vietnam War drained government finances at the same time as Lyndon Johnson's Great Society (and to a lesser extent, Richard Nixon) sought to expand the government welfare state.In Europe, the Ostpolitik of Willy Brandt was decreasing tensions; the Soviets hoped that with Détente, more trade with Western Europe to bolster their sagging economy would be possible.