Literature Review On Tuberculosis

Various internet data bases were searched including the following: PUB Med, Google, Google scholar, and Educus.The following search words were used: tuberculosis of the penis and penile tuberculosis.

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TBP could be primary or secondary, may develop following circumcision performed by a person who had pulmonary Tb, and may be transmitted to the penis from ejaculation, contamination from clothing, or from contact with endometrial secretions, following an earlier pulmonary Tb or Tb elsewhere. There may or may not be history of circumcision, pulmonary Tb, and BCG immunization.

It would even be more difficult to diagnose Tb of the penis in Tb non-endemic areas of the world because a number of clinicians would be unaware of the possibility of the occurrence of such a rare disease as well as the clinical manifestation of the disease.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Even in Tb endemic countries it is difficult to diagnose Tb of the penis.

Tb of the penis is an uncommon presentation of Tb, even in countries where the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary Tb is high.

Direct microscopy of the pus was done and this again revealed a heavy growth of acid fast bacilli (3 ), and cultures from both BACTEC liquid medium and Lowenstein Jensen medium were positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. He noticed a small painless lump on his penis shortly after he had returned from India. He was married and denied having had any other sexual partner for more than 25 years.

Routine bacterial culture did not have a growth of any other bacteria. He had lived in the United Kingdom for more than 40 years.CT scan would also confirm or exclude presence of extrapulmonary Tb or enlarged inguinal lymph nodes.(d) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Scan. (2) Permission is given with the proviso that the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis is cited as the source of the figure.MRI scan of abdomen, pelvis, and thorax when undertaken may confirm or exclude presence or absence of pulmonary Tb in the patient, his contacts, and family. The original copy right is retained by Indian Journal of Tuberculosis and any request to use or reproduce the figure would require permission from the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis.His clinical examination revealed multiple superficial ulcers on the prepuce and glans penis. Reproduced with permission granted by the editor of the journal, who stated that permission to make a copy of the paper has been granted subject to the following: (1) the paper should only be used for academic and research purposes and not for profit/business.The edges of the ulcers were undermined; however, the ulcers did not perforate deeply into the urethra. His general and systematic examinations were normal. (2) Permission is given with the proviso that the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis is cited as the source of the figure. Globally, no country has ever been able to eradicate Tb [2, 4]. PTBs respond to first- or 2nd-line anti-Tb 6-month treatment. The infection can affect any organ and mimic other illnesses; hence it is called the great mimicker [1–3].His investigations were reported as follows: He had biopsy of the penile growth under local anaesthesia of which histological examination was reported as having shown tuberculous balanitis. [5] stated that up to 1971, 171 cases of Tb of the penis had been reported in the literature [11]. After 9 months of chemotherapy, the first patient underwent circumcision and histological examination of the preputial skin showed that there was no evidence of residual disease. Kar [6] reported a 31-years-old man who presented with some ulcerated lesions on his glans penis and who had a strongly positive Mantoux test and positive TB-PCR.With regard to the second patient, his penile ulcer had healed after 3 months of antituberculosis therapy. He had biopsy of the lesion and histological examination of the specimen showed features consistent with tuberculosis and a diagnosis of primary tuberculosis of the glans penis was made.MRI scan would also confirm or exclude presence of extrapulmonary Tb or enlarged inguinal lymph nodes.(8) Macroscopic Findings. Das, “Tuberculosis of Penis: Report of Two Cases,” Ind. A 30-year-old married man reported an ulcer on the dorsal surface of his glans penis which had been present for 3 months (see Figure 2). He gave a history of having had extramarital exposure 12 years earlier.Some of the possible findings on gross examination of the penile lesion before and after biopsy include the following: First-line anti-Tb treatment tends to be effective in the treatment of Tb of penis but in cases of multiresistant Tb infections of the penis second-line anti-Tb treatment should be effective. On examination, an ulcerated foul smelling necrotic area was found on his glans penis with an indurated irregular edge and the base of the ulcer was granular with a serosanguinous discharge. His prostate, seminal vesicles, testes, and epididymis on both sides were felt to be normal on examination.

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