Neurotransmitters Research Papers

This process entails a passage of electrical and chemical information from one neuron to many other neurons or organs.

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Axons exit the cell body at the point called the axon hillock (Figure 14.1).

In many neurons the axon is insulated by segments of protein and fat called myelin.

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Neurotransmission involves the sharing of information within the nervous system from one neuron, or nerve cell, to another membrane (i.e., another neuron, muscle, or gland).

Myelin is formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and oligodendrocytes in the CNS.

Although the function of the myelin is the same in both nervous systems, increasing the speed of the signal down the axon, the manner in which Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes form myelin is very different.

Although there are many types of nerve cells, there are basic components of a neuron that differentiate it from other types of cells.

A typical neuron has three main parts: the receiving, the transmitting, and the communicating components (see Figure 14.1).

Dendrites, also a receiving component of the cell, are branch-like structures that protrude from the cell body.

Smaller appendages that form on the dendrites are called dendritic spines.


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