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The British Navy, therefore, considered any American citizen liable for impressment if he was born British.
The Americans triumphantly celebrated the restoration of their national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes.
On June 18, 1812, President James Madison signed into law the American declaration of war, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations initially limited to the border and the western frontier.
The British were then able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, smothering American maritime trade, but their attempts failed to invade America, at which point both sides began to desire peace.
Peace negotiations began in August 1814, and the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24, 1814.
In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, whom Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars.
The United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law.
Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America (Canada) contributed to the American decision to go to war.
However, the Western interest was in expansion into American territories such as Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, where they were threatened by Indians supported by the British.